Savoy cabbage covered with frost

How Cold Can Cabbage Tolerate?

Cabbage, with its crisp leaves and versatility in the kitchen, holds a cherished place in gardens and kitchens around the world. Yet, to truly appreciate the bounty of this cruciferous delight, one must delve into the fascinating realm of cabbage’s relationship with the cold. For gardeners in diverse climates, understanding just how cold cabbage can tolerate is the key to a thriving crop.

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Cold Tolerance Basics

Before we explore the depths of cabbage’s cold resilience, let’s establish the basics of cold tolerance in plants. Cold tolerance refers to a plant’s ability to withstand exposure to low temperatures, particularly freezing or near-freezing conditions. Plants, including cabbage, have varying degrees of cold tolerance, often categorized by hardiness zones, which provide guidance on what can thrive in different regions. Cabbage, like many vegetables, is no exception to the rule of needing the right climate and conditions to thrive.

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Ideal Growing Conditions

Cabbage, a cool-season crop, prefers specific growing conditions for optimal development. To coax the best from this vegetable, it craves a climate characterized by cooler temperatures, typically in the range of 45°F to 75°F (7°C to 24°C). This means that the prime time for cabbage planting is often during the spring and fall when these temperature ranges prevail.

Moreover, cabbage thrives in well-draining, nutrient-rich soil with a slightly acidic to neutral pH, typically ranging from 6.0 to 7.0. It appreciates ample sunlight, ideally receiving at least 6 hours of direct sun daily.

Understanding these ideal growing conditions sets the stage for comprehending how cabbage interacts with the cold. So, let’s journey further into the world of cabbage and its dance with frost and freezing temperatures.

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Cabbage and Frost

Cabbage’s response to frost and freezing temperatures is a critical aspect of its cold tolerance. When exposed to frost, cabbage leaves can become damaged, and the overall health of the plant may be compromised. Young cabbage plants, in particular, are more susceptible to frost damage. Symptoms of frost damage on cabbage include wilting, browning, and a general loss of turgidity in the leaves.

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While cabbage can endure light frosts and chilly temperatures, a hard frost, where temperatures drop below 28°F (-2°C), can be detrimental. Hard frost can freeze the outer leaves of cabbage, making them appear translucent and limp. However, the cabbage heart, located at the center of the plant, is often more protected and can remain viable.

Cabbage Varieties and Cold Tolerance

Cabbage varieties can vary in their cold tolerance. Some cabbage types are more resilient in the face of cold weather, making them better suited for regions with unpredictable temperatures. For example, “January King” and “Savoy” cabbage varieties are known for their ability to withstand colder conditions and even improve in flavor after experiencing a light frost. These varieties are often referred to as “winter cabbages”.

On the other hand, early-season or “spring” cabbage varieties may be more vulnerable to cold snaps and frost, making them better choices for planting in the warmer months.

When choosing cabbage varieties for your garden, consider your local climate and the potential for cold weather. Selecting the right variety can make a significant difference in your cabbage’s ability to tolerate cold temperatures.

Protecting Cabbage from Cold

To safeguard your cabbage from the cold, especially when frost threatens, there are several protective measures you can take:

  1. Row Covers: Covering your cabbage plants with row covers or cloths can provide insulation and prevent frost from settling on the leaves.
  2. Mulching: Apply a layer of organic mulch, such as straw or leaves, around the base of the cabbage plants. Mulch helps maintain more stable soil temperatures and protects the roots from freezing.
  3. Watering: Water your cabbage plants thoroughly before a cold snap. Wet soil retains heat better than dry soil and can provide some protection to the roots.
  4. Planting Location: If possible, choose a planting location that offers some natural protection from wind and extreme cold. Planting near a wall or structure can provide a degree of shelter.
  5. Cold-Resistant Varieties: As mentioned earlier, select cabbage varieties known for their cold tolerance, especially if you live in a region with unpredictable weather.
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By implementing these protective measures and choosing appropriate cabbage varieties, you can help your cabbage crop withstand cold temperatures and continue to thrive, even when the mercury drops.

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How Cold Is Too Cold for Cabbage

While cabbage can tolerate cold temperatures, there is a limit to how low it can go. Understanding when it’s “too cold” for cabbage is crucial for preserving the health and quality of your crop.

Generally, cabbage can handle light frosts and temperatures that dip just below freezing (around 28°F or -2°C) for short periods without significant damage. However, when the mercury plummets well below freezing for extended periods, it can become problematic. Hard freezes, where temperatures drop significantly below freezing, can result in severe damage to cabbage plants.

The point at which cabbage becomes vulnerable to damage depends on various factors, including the cabbage variety, its age, and the duration of cold exposure. Young cabbage plants are more susceptible to cold damage than mature ones.

Monitoring weather forecasts and being prepared to take protective measures when extremely cold conditions are expected is key to preserving your cabbage crop. Understanding your local climate patterns and the typical temperature ranges in your area will help you determine when it’s necessary to provide extra protection.

Overwintering Cabbage

For gardeners in regions with milder winters, overwintering cabbage can be a viable option. Overwintering involves planting cabbage in the late summer or early fall with the goal of allowing it to survive and continue growing through the winter months.

To overwinter cabbage successfully, choose cold-tolerant varieties and provide adequate protection, such as row covers or cloths, during the coldest periods. In mild climates, cabbage can produce a fresh harvest throughout the winter, providing a valuable source of homegrown produce.

Overwintering cabbage requires careful planning and attention to weather conditions, but it can be a rewarding way to extend your cabbage harvest beyond the typical growing season.


In the intricate dance between cabbage and cold, understanding the boundaries of cold tolerance is the key to a successful harvest. Cabbage, with its resilience and adaptability, can thrive in cooler climates and even withstand light frosts. However, it’s essential to be vigilant in monitoring weather conditions and providing protection when necessary.

Whether you’re growing cabbage for its crunchy leaves in fresh salads or planning to overwinter it for a continuous supply, your knowledge of how cold cabbage can tolerate is a valuable asset. By selecting appropriate cabbage varieties, implementing protective measures, and being attuned to your local climate, you can ensure a bountiful cabbage harvest year-round. Happy cabbage growing, and may your garden always be abundant!

About the author

Victoria Nelson

Victoria Nelson is a passionate gardener with over a decade of experience in horticulture and sustainable gardening practices. With a degree in Horticulture, she has a deep understanding of plants, garden design, and eco-friendly gardening techniques. Victoria aims to inspire and educate gardeners of all skill levels through her engaging articles, offering practical advice drawn from her own experiences. She believes in creating beautiful, biodiverse gardens that support local wildlife. When not writing or gardening, Victoria enjoys exploring new gardens and connecting with the gardening community. Her enthusiasm for gardening is infectious, making her a cherished source of knowledge and inspiration.

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